An ever-growing population, large-scale urbanisation and changes in food consumption, lifestyle and land-use patterns have resulted in determining the country’s water requirements. Although India receives enough rainfall, it is not equally distributed across all the regions. Agriculture is one of the biggest sectors in India, making irrigation the largest consumer of water. Further, an increase in the population and industrial activities has increased the usage of water in several sectors. This increase is at a rate which is unsustainable and is worsened by climate change.

Agriculture Sector

India is the agricultural powerhouse of the world. The agriculture sector is by far the largest consumer of water. The consumption amounts to approximately 80% of India’s total water usage. And more than 50% of this water comes from underground resources. This amount of high dependence is resulting in the depletion of underground water levels. Another aspect is the pollution of groundwater and surface water by the agricultural use of untreated wastewater. This further leads to abnormalities in the crop yield and the health of the farmers. However, proper treatment can help in efficiently using the nutrient-rich wastewater for agricultural purposes, as well as the farmers’ livelihoods.

Industrial Sector

For a long period of time, industries have discharged their waste without treatment into the water bodies. And, this has lead to a detrimental impact on both the health of the living organisms and the environment. Today, there are still some industries that are following the same practice. It is important to take into consideration the societal and environmental impacts that are increasing day by day. Various highly advanced technologies like Disc Tube (DT) based RO system and Waste Heat Evaporator have made it possible for the Industrial wastewater to be recycled for reusable purposes. According to a report by the United Nations, the Industrial sector is one of the major consumers of water and account for approximately 22% of global water use. In the coming years, this percentage is going to rise up, in turn increasing the generation of wastewater. Therefore, it is important to install a robust wastewater treatment system for all industrial plants.

Municipal Sector

As the population is increasing day by day,  there are many low-income areas where huge quantities of wastewater are discharged into drains and natural water resources without treatment. This wastewater comprises of household effluents, human waste, urban-based hospital waste, chemicals, etc. And, all these components make the wastewater highly toxic. However, there are some places where the collection and treatment of wastewater take place. Though, the efficiency of the treatment depends on the system being used. This can become a major problem with the rapid growth of the urban population. It is important to install and revamp the existing wastewater treatment systems for recycling the harmful wastewater for reusable purposes.

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