It’s 2019, as we near the status of a developed nation, it is drowning us towards a deteriorated environment. Development is an important factor in any country’s socio-economic growth but it should be undertaken, keeping in check the impact on the environment. 
An increased rate of industrialisation and urbanisation have infected our surroundings with many pollutants, with one of them being wastewater. This wastewater has two sources - 
  • Industrial Wastewater 
  • Sewage from Domestic Households
 
Industrial Wastewater can be classified into the following:
  • Organic Industrial Wastewater - It comes from those industries which use organic substances for chemical reactions, such as: 
    • Textile Industry
    • Fermentation Factory
    • Metal Processing Industry
    • Tannery Industry
    • Oil Industry
    • Pharmaceutical Industry, etc
 
  • Inorganic Industrial Wastewater - It comes mainly from those industries which use solid matter as their main raw material. These include:
    • Coal Industry
    • Steel Industry
    • Non-metallic Minerals Industry, etc
 
Sewage from Domestic Households can be classified into the following:
  • Yellow Water - human urine
  • Brown Water - human faeces with flushed water 
  • Black Water  - human faeces mixed with urine
  • Grey Water   - water used in other parts of the house except for toilets such as kitchen, washbasin, laundry and showers
 
Approximately 22,900 million litres per day (MLD) of domestic wastewater and 13,500 million litres per day (MLD) of industrial wastewater is generated in India. On top of it, there is only capacity to treat just 5,900 MLD of domestic wastewater and 8,000 MLD of industrial wastewater (Source: National Informatics Centre Report). Therefore, much of it gets released into natural water resources such as rivers, ponds, lakes, streams, groundwater, etc making it unfit for consumption. This further contaminates the usable water, spreading harmful diseases such as: 
  • Typhoid
  • Paratyphoid
  • Acute Diarrhoeal Diseases
  • Cholera
  • Viral Hepatitis
  • Trachoma
  • Malaria
  • Gastroenteritis, etc
 
There are several harmful viruses, parasites and bacteria present in this wastewater which leads to the above-mentioned deadly diseases. These viruses not only affect humans but also marine life, affecting the environment.
In order to control the situation, wastewater treatment should be taken as an urgent and effective solution before the water becomes a luxury commodity.
 
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